INTRODUCTION ON OVERVIEW OF CAPITAL MARKET :
Every modern economy is based on a sound financial system which helps in production, capital and economic growth by encouraging savings habits, mobilising savings from households and other segments and allocating savings into productive usage such as trade, commerce, manufacture etc.
Financial system covers both credit and cash transactions. All financial transactions are dealt with by cash payment or issue of negotiable instruments like cheque, bills of exchanges, hundies etc. Thus a financial system is a set of institutional arrangements through which financial surpluses are mobilised from the units generating surplus income and transferring them to the others in need of them. The activities include production, distribution, exchange and holding of financial assets/instruments of different kinds by financial institutions, banks and other intermediaries of the market. In a nutshell, financial market, financial assets, financial services and financial institutions constitute the financial system.
Various factors influence the capital market and its growth. These include level of savings in the household sector, taxation levels, health of economy, corporate performance, industrial trends and common patterns of living.
The strength of the economy is calibrated by different economic indicators like growth in GDP (Gross Domestic Product), Agricultural production, quantum and spread of rain fall, interest rates, inflation, position on balance of payments and balance of trade, levels of foreign exchange reserves and investments and growth in capital formation.
The traditional form of financing companies projects consist of internal resources and debt financing, particularly from financial institutions for modernisation, expansion and diversification. The upsurge in performance of certain large companies and the astounding increase of their share prices boost the market sentiment to divert the savings more and more into equity investments in companies. This lead to the growth of equity cult among investors to contribute resources not only for companies but even for financial institutions and banks.
The functions of a good financial system are manifold. They are:
(a) regulation of currency
(b) banking functions
(c) performance of agency services and custody of cash reserves
(d) management of national reserves of international currency
(e) credit control
(f) administering national, fiscal and monetary policy to ensure stability of the economy
(g) supply and deployment of funds for productive use
(h) maintaining liquidity.
Long term growth of financial system is ensured through:
(a) education of investors
(b) giving autonomy to FIs to become efficient under competition
(c) consolidation through mergers
(d) facilitating entry of new institutions to add depth to the market
(e) minimising regulatory measures and market segmentation.
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